Data Advocacy for Netherlands

The Netherlands implemented the EU Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC on 1 September 2001 with the Dutch Personal Data Protection Act (Wbp). Enforcement is through the Dutch Data Protection Authority (Autoriteit Persoonsgegevens).

Applicable Law

The applicable legislation is the Dutch Personal Data Protection Act (“Wet bescherming persoonsgegevens”) of July 6, 2000, implementing Directive 95/46/EC (the “Directive”), last amended on June 5, 2015 (introducing the general data breach notification obligation and higher penalties, effective January 1, 2016) (the “PDPA”).

Further data protection provisions are included in the Telecommunications Act (“Telecommunicatiewet”) of October 19, 1998, among others, implementing the e-Privacy Directive, as last amended on February 3, 2016 (effective July 1, 2017) (the “TA”).

In addition, there are various delegated laws and regulations, the most important of which is the Notification Exemption Decree (“Vrijstellingsbesluit Wbp”) of May 7, 2001, last amended on December 9, 2014 (effective January 1, 2015), which exempts certain processing activities from the general data processing notification obligation. Moreover, the DPA has issued various guidelines and policy rules, which include:

  • Policy on fines and penalties (2016);
  • Active publication policy (2016);
  • Policy on data breach notification (2016);
  • Guidelines on data security (2013);
  • Enforcement activity policy (2011); and
  • Policy on DPA opinions on request (2009).

Autoriteit Persoonsgegevens

Juliana van Stolberglaan 4-10

2595 CL DEN HAAG

Postbox 93374

2509 AJ DEN HAAG

T 00.31.70 – 8888 500

F 00.31.70 – 8888 501

www.autoriteitpersoonsgegevens.nl

Companies, industry associations, governments and institutions can appoint a data protection officer. There is no legal requirement in the Netherlands to do so. The data protection officer ensures that processing of personal data will take place in accordance with the Wbp. The statutory duties and powers of the data protection officer gives this officer an independent position within the organisation.

In the Netherlands, there is no general requirement to appoint or designate a data privacy officer (“DPO”) or other individual who will be accountable for the privacy practices of the organization.

Data Controllers that do appoint a registered DPO are exempt from the statutory duty to notify their processing operations and have these recorded in a publicly available register. As per October 2013, just over 650 companies had appointed a registered DPO (source: https://autoriteitpersoonsgegevens.nl/nl/zelf-doen/functionaris-voor-de- gegevensbescherming/).

Since 1 January 2016, a data breach, i.e. any security incident that leads or may lead to the accidental or unlawful destruction, loss, alteration, unauthorised disclosure of, or access to Personal Data transmitted, stored or otherwise processed, must be reported to the Autoriteit Persoonsgegevens, if such data breach has or may have serious disadvantageous consequences for the protection of personal data.

In addition, data subjects need to be informed about a data breach if such data breach is likely to have unfavourable consequences to their privacy.

In addition to the general data breach obligation under the PDPA, a specific data breach notification obligation, implementing articles 4(3) and 4(4) of the e-Privacy Directive, is laid down in article 11.3a of the TA. Under this obligation, in case a data security breach takes place and such breach has detrimental effects for the protection of Personal Data, the TA imposes an obligation on providers of public electronic communication services to notify the Authority Consumers and Markets (“ACM”) as soon as possible. In addition, the provider must notify the relevant Data Subjects if their Personal Data is at risk. If the provider fails to notify the Data Subjects, the ACM may order the provider to do so.

An organization that is involved in a data breach situation may be subject to a suspension of business operations, closure or cancellation of the file, register or database, an administrative fine, penalty or sanction, or civil actions and/or class actions, or a criminal prosecution.

Opt-in regime: no direct marketing electronic mail can be legally sent without the express consent of the receiver, unless a pre-existing business or commercial relationship exists. (Consent is however not mandated for marketing to legal persons.)

Also, a specific opt out must be offered with each message. Disguised sender identities are prohibited, and a valid return address must be provided.

The term “Opt-Out Rule” means that the sending of e-marketing to the recipient is permitted on an opt-out basis if:

  • the recipient’s details were originally collected “in the context of a sale”.
  • the entity sending the marketing is the same legal entity that collected the recipient’s details initially.
  • the marketing relates to “similar” products and/or services for which the recipient’s details were originally obtained.
  • the recipient is given the opportunity free of charge to object to the e-marketing, both at the time their details were collected and in each subsequent communication.

Applicable Legislation:

Telecommunications Act dated 5 June 2012

First party e-marketing

(entity that collects the data will send the e-marketing itself)

B2C: Opt-in. Opt-out permitted where Opt-Out Rule applies.

B2B: Opt-in. Opt-out permitted where Opt-Out Rule applies

Third party e-marketing

(entity that collects the data will share with third party partner for e-marketing)

B2C: Opt-in

B2B: Opt-in.

live.nl  741884

home.nl  196298

planet.nl  157472

hetnet.nl  118945

hotmail.nl  106567

chello.nl  100596

xs4all.nl  77743

zonnet.nl  66918

ziggo.nl  60611

casema.nl  59242

wanadoo.nl  46276

kpnplanet.nl  44074

quicknet.nl  43128

upcmail.nl  42078

kpnmail.nl  35038

tiscali.nl  33280

zeelandnet.nl  27418

telfort.nl  25283

online.nl  24683

orange.nl  24286

versatel.nl  22801

tele2.nl  15833

wxs.nl  15120

hccnet.nl  13822

12move.nl  9381

yahoo.nl  7930

kabelfoon.nl  7546

solcon.nl  6966

freeler.nl  6636

caiway.nl  6231

lycos.nl  5828

scarlet.nl  4036

worldonline.nl  3337

onsbrabantnet.nl  3238

rocwb.nl  3185

wur.nl  3151

dds.nl  3017

aol.nl  2941

xmsnet.nl  2875

euronet.nl  2826

concepts.nl  2800

uwv.nl  2553

mail.ing.nl  2157

gmail.nl  2139

alice.nl  2089

tudelft.nl  2030

hva.nl  2016

filternet.nl  2011

diddlpost.nl  1895

uva.nl  1793

deloitte.nl  1759

achmea.nl  1710

uu.nl  1625

rws.nl  1613

erasmusmc.nl  1584

rn.rabobank.nl  1548

rug.nl  1457

kliksafe.nl  1449

msn.nl  1415

uvt.nl  1365

student.inholland.nl  1338

ing.nl  1336

mindef.nl  1320

students.uu.nl  1253

fontys.nl  1248

tue.nl  1227

minbuza.nl  1218

web.nl  1196

onsneteindhoven.nl  1189

amc.uva.nl  1186

tno.nl  1178

kpmg.nl  1162

student.hu.nl  1145

umcutrecht.nl  1137

raketnet.nl  1097

inholland.nl  1047

vumc.nl  1035

onsmail.nl  987

minlnv.nl  972

lumc.nl  972

student.uva.nl  967

ilse.nl  966

hu.nl  965

han.nl  956

freemail.nl  954

wolmail.nl  932

ordina.nl  912

iae.nl  907

student.utwente.nl  854

imtech.nl  848

knid.nl  847

utwente.nl  845

sogeti.nl  833

vodafone.nl  820

student.tue.nl  815

heineken.nl  815

student.fontys.nl  793

essent.nl  792

dse.nl  744

arcadis.nl  743

maastrichtuniversity.nl  742

interpolis.nl  739

utrecht.nl  731

via-kampen.nl  716

student.unimaas.nl  699

yacht.nl  697

tip.nl  690

ns.nl  689

vodafonevast.nl  670

tempo-team.nl  670

hro.nl  665

pl.hanze.nl  658

minvrom.nl  636

student.tudelft.nl  627

tomaatnet.nl  620

saxion.nl  618

st.hanze.nl  616

tntpost.nl  599

dji.minjus.nl  597

prorail.nl  587

kpn-officedsl.nl  585

hszuyd.nl  579

apennootje.nl  576

student.rug.nl  574

compaqnet.nl  572

multiweb.nl  559

bdo.nl  557

kpn.nl  556

upc.nl  551

denhaag.nl  551

hhs.nl  550

dolfijn.nl  549

heijmans.nl  541

windesheim.nl  539

citaverde.nl  539

avans.nl  538

deltalloyd.nl  516

student.ru.nl  501

asr.nl  500

nn.nl  497

grontmij.nl  489

demeerwaarde.nl  486

prettel.nl  480

sns.nl  475

student.han.nl  468

aegon.nl  464

duckmail.nl  462

brabant.nl  461

manpower.nl  457

edu.rocwb.nl  450

alumnus.utwente.nl  442

ikbenspamvrij.nl  440

minbzk.nl  438

eneco.nl  436

rivm.nl  435

rocva.nl  430

lijbrandt.nl  426

hoornbeeck.nl  426

adecco.nl  425

eindhoven.nl  420

schiphol.nl  419

vathorstnet.nl  413

itc.nl  412

unet.nl  402

cwinet.nl  400

cofely-gdfsuez.nl  400

zernike.nl  397

t-mobile.nl  397

hi.nl  396

nhtv.nl  395

ou.nl  393

ballast-nedam.nl  393

albeda.nl  385

unive.nl  381

introweb.nl  379

student.maastrichtuniversity.nl  378

almere.nl  374

rechtspraak.nl  373

enexis.nl  371

bmc.nl  371

agentschapnl.nl  371

umail.leidenuniv.nl  369

nijmegen.nl  369

minszw.nl  367

ipact.nl  366

rocmn.nl  363

minez.nl  359

anwb.nl  359

hz.nl  356

worldmail.nl  354

wish.nl  352

vu.nl  352

rsm.nl  345

student.vu.nl  339

aon.nl  338

reaal.nl  337

checkjemail.nl  337

tilburg.nl  335

bart.nl  334

reedbusiness.nl  333

mumc.nl  333

kabel.netvisit.nl  330

sanoma-uitgevers.nl  328

uwnet.nl  327

arnhem.nl  323

rotterdam.nl  320

belastingdienst.nl  317

zadkine.nl  314

minvws.nl  314

pzh.nl  312

minocw.nl  311

breda.nl  310

tref.nl  307

startpeople.nl  305

centric.nl  302

lol.nl  301

ichthuskampen.nl  301

science.uva.nl  300

nki.nl  300

minfin.nl  300

minvenw.nl  295

noorderpoort.nl  293

student.eur.nl  290

ive.nl  289

ahk.nl  289

kadaster.nl  288

apg.nl  287

oranjewoud.nl  286

vgziza.nl  281

boskalis.nl  280

ah.nl  280

enschede.nl  277

med.umcg.nl  275

hyves.nl  275

postnl.nl  274

floraholland.nl  273

haarlem.nl  272

cbs.nl  271

robeco.nl  269

life.nl  269

dnb.nl  269

croon.nl  268

altrecht.nl  263

noord-holland.nl  262

minjus.nl  261

kvk.nl  261

glr.nl  261

duravermeer.nl  260

adslmail.nl  260

s-hertogenbosch.nl  259

apeldoorn.nl  259

mazars.nl  257

fiberworld.nl  257

asa.nl  254

pggm.nl  252

tauw.nl  251

roceindhoven.nl  248

snsreaal.nl  247

gasunie.nl  247

waternet.nl  243

tweedekamer.nl  243

caiw.nl  243

amc.nl  243

pinkroccade.nl  242

kluwer.nl  242

deltion.nl  242

umcg.nl  240

student.hro.nl  240

rocvantwente.nl  240

menzis.nl  240

liv.nl  239

office.ziggo.nl  238

acconavm.nl  238

svb.nl  237

simpc.nl  236

maastricht.nl  236

cistron.nl  236

syntens.nl  234

agisweb.nl  234

movares.nl  232

arbounie.nl  232

keyaccess.nl  231

landstede.nl  230

ezorg.nl  228

amersfoort.nl  228

noknok.nl  223

venlo.nl  222

sheerenloo.nl  221

novacollege.nl  221

rijnijssel.nl  220

student.hhs.nl  219

student.avans.nl  219

om.nl  218

horizoncollege.nl  218

deltares.nl  217

delta.nl  216

student.hsleiden.nl  215

rocmondriaan.nl  215

isala.nl  215

nlr.nl  213

vwa.nl  212

veteranen.nl  212

prvlimburg.nl  212

politieacademie.nl  212

olvg.nl  211

sozawe.rotterdam.nl  210

penta.nl  210

nedtrain.nl  209

delft.nl  209

aventus.nl  209

alkmaar.nl  208

provincie-utrecht.nl  207

alfa-college.nl  207

minienm.nl  206

telegraaf.nl  205

science.ru.nl  205

isa.nl  205

ricoh.nl  204

prv.gelderland.nl  203

pj.nl  203

tiscalimail.nl  202

zeeland.nl  201

wellant.nl  200

roc-nijmegen.nl  200

knoware.nl  200

nos.nl  199

leeuwarden.nl  199

hsleiden.nl  199

hr.nl  199

vitens.nl  198

rocaventus.nl  198

leiden.nl  198

fsw.leidenuniv.nl  198

bamutiliteitsbouw.nl  198

gw.rotterdam.nl  197

zaanstad.nl  196

xsall.nl  196

vpro.nl  196

unique.nl  196

tg.nl  196

dordrecht.nl  196

dlnr.zadkine.nl  196

ash.nl  195

net.hcc.nl  193

hdh.nl  193

deventer.nl  193

ad.nl  192

znb.nl  191

nutsonline.nl  191

wannadoo.nl  190

hollandcasino.nl  190

yord.nl  189

ymere.nl  189

bg.fnv.nl  189

kw1c.nl  188

ind.minjus.nl  188

rvdk.minjus.nl  187

klpd.politie.nl  186

interaccess.nl  186

mca.nl  185

dwi.amsterdam.nl  185

asz.nl  185

rtl.nl  184

student.saxion.nl  183

luna.nl  183

ecn.nl  183

cz.nl  183

feweb.vu.nl  182

emmen.nl  182

ision.nl  181

fcroc.nl  179

elisabeth.nl  179

heerlen.nl  178

falw.vu.nl  178

amphia.nl  178

sdu.nl  177

hypotheker.nl  177

unica.nl  176

sanquin.nl  176

let.ru.nl  176

jbz.nl  175

bogerman.nl  175

senternovem.nl  173

rnw.nl  173

nrc.nl  172

box.nl  171

supermail.nl  170

geo.uu.nl  170

test.nl  169

legerdesheils.nl  169

mail.nl  168

fryslan.nl  168

mobileemail.vodafone.nl  167

flynth.nl  167

davinci.nl  167

yer.nl  165

onetelnet.nl  165

csvvg.nl  164

tebodin.nl  163

oce.nl  163

drenthe.nl  162

akd.nl  162

kentalis.nl  161

ivw.nl  161

hagaziekenhuis.nl  161

cordaan.nl  161

abp.nl  161

rdgg.nl  160

endemol.nl  160

detelefoongids.nl  160

creyfs.nl  160

cello.nl  160

zoetermeer.nl  158

bouwfonds.nl  158

lve.nl  157

fm.ru.nl  156

dimence.nl  156

unic-utrecht.nl  155

tst.nl  155

helmond.nl  155

haarlemmermeer.nl  155

parnassia.nl  154

allianz.nl  154

wandoo.nl  153

rocfriesepoort.nl  153

hasdb.nl  153

hondsrugcollege.nl  152

antenna.nl  152

ohra.nl  151

monsterboard.nl  151

eiffel.nl  151

ede.nl  151

dz.nl  150

staatsbosbeheer.nl  148

rdw.nl  148

knmg.nl  148

zwolle.nl  147

vng.nl  147

mn-services.nl  147

maandag.nl  147

hengelo.nl  147

student.windesheim.nl  146

nyenrode.nl  146

moerstaal.nl  146

hetassink.nl  145

gelderland.nl  145

few.vu.nl  145

vitae.nl  144

tweakdsl.nl  144

msm.nl  144

lombok.nl  144

gitp.nl  144

fsw.eur.nl  144

damen.nl  144

cordares.nl  144

antoniusziekenhuis.nl  144

kempen.nl  143

amsterdam.politie.nl  143

witteveenbos.nl  142

sita.nl  142

mmc.nl  142

drenthecollege.nl  142

boschrexroth.nl  142

almelo.nl  142

overijssel.nl  140

hum.leidenuniv.nl  140

connexxion.nl  140

capgemini.nl  140

idcollege.nl  139

alumni.itc.nl  139

trigion.nl  138

westland.rabobank.nl  137

dsv.rotterdam.nl  137

zwitserleven.nl  136

tpgpost.nl  136

quiknet.nl  136

plex.nl  136

aa.nl  136

vshanab.nl  135

vara.nl  135

mon3aan.nl  135

ggnet.nl  135

gelre.nl  135

conquaestor.nl  135

bamwoningbouw.nl  135

smurfitkappa.nl  133

frieslandbank.nl  133

coa.minjus.nl  133

bamtechniek.nl  133

2college.nl  133

schuitema.nl  132

provinciegroningen.nl  132

graafschapcollege.nl  132

ggzdrenthe.nl  132

youscope.nl  131

kro.nl  131

dhv.nl  131

ggze.nl  130

fclive.nl  130

whm.wegener.nl  129